Energias Alternativas al petroleo

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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 05 Feb 2013 14:04

As well as being a foodstuff, sugar is an important source of fuel. That’s because it can be converted into ethanol, which in turn can be used as a petrol substitute. Brazilians have been using it in their cars since the 1970s. Indeed, by law, all cars sold have to be able to run on fuel that is at least 18% ethanol, and nine out of ten can run on pure ethanol.

Up until now, Brazilian car ownership has been limited. In 2011 there were only 259 cars per 1,000 people. This is less than half the ratio in the UK (525) and just over 30% of that of the US (812).

But with the Brazilian middle class growing, car sales have been booming. The latest figures suggest that total sales were at record levels in 2012. More cars on Brazil’s roads mean that more ethanol – and therefore more sugar – will be consumed.

Another major boost is that Brazil’s state oil company has decided to raise the price of petrol. This will in turn allow ethanol producers to raise their prices. On top of that, the state has said that it wants the percentage of ethanol used in petrol to go from 20% to 25%. Because Brazil is so important as a producer, this should erase the global surplus completely.


However, up until now, the US has focused on a version of ethanol that uses corn grown in the US, for the simple reason that it’s a handy bribe for the powerful US agricultural lobby.

But this policy has been criticised heavily for driving up food prices. Bodies such as the United Nations aren’t happy that corn is going inside the tanks of SUVs in America, rather than the stomachs of those in developing countries.

In response, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been trying to make sure that some of the ethanol used comes from non-corn based sources. In practice, this means sugar-based ethanol.

Of course, this move is not popular with farmers in the Midwest, and there have been moves to get it reversed. However, it’s clear that the trend is towards sugar – not corn-based – ethanol.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 18 Mar 2013 06:25

UAE opens world's largest solar plant project

Shams 1 inaugurated by UAE President; project will generate clean energy to 20,000 homes
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 01 Sep 2013 12:54

Scientists working on a US $1.8mn research project have almost doubled the amount of energy obtained from solar cells.

Researchers from Masdar Institute of Science and Technology made the breakthrough by constructing the cells using the chemical element germanium mixed with the usual silicon.

"Germanium has better optical properties for solar cells than silicon," said Dr Ammar Nayfeh, an assistant professor in microsystems engineering at the institute and head of the project.

"The electrons move faster in germanium so you can actually get more current with it. The project was launched in 2011 with the aim to provide smaller, faster and less power-hungry devices by optimising the capture of solar energy. We showed that by incorporating germanium in our solar cells, we could exploit more of the sun's radiation," Dr Nayfeh said.

Germanium has also proven to absorb a lot more light than other materials, which means smaller quantities can be used. Masdar Institute has so far conducted its experimental work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston and Bilkent University in Turkey, but its own 300-square-metre clean room is almost ready for use.

"It's now ramping up," Dr Nayfeh said. "We're at the point of setting up the experiments, getting trained, students are now developing the process here.
"Just recently, we fabricated a working thin-film solar cell at Masdar for the first time. We've also added gold nano-particles on top of the solar cells that further enhances the solar current achieved."

Dr Nayfeh and his team will spend the next few months developing the clean room. "It's going to be a lab where we can do experiments with tools comparable to Stanford and MIT," he said. "It can be used by any UAE university and it'll be a UAE-centric clean room," he said.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 09 Mar 2014 07:16

Dubai's Petrixo plans $800m bio-fuel refinery: Company says it will build project in Fujairah; will have capacity of 1m metric tons per year
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 28 Sep 2014 12:05

Abu Dhabi leads rooftop solar power revolution

Private property owners will soon be able to become generators.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor girado007 » 15 Oct 2014 08:32

Pues ya pueden darle a las alternativas, porque con un barril a 80$ la cosa se pone fea para un PIB que depende en un 60% de petroleo y gas.

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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 17 Oct 2014 06:08

Un PIB que ni paga deudas, y un coste de producción de los más bajos.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 19 Nov 2014 19:19

El primer avión sin combustible dará la vuelta al mundo en 2015

'Solar Impulse 2', el primer avión del mundo propulsado con energía solar, estará listo para dar la vuelta al mundo la próxima primavera, en una travesía que partirá desde Abu Dhabi (Emiratos Árabes Unidos), capital en la que también tendrá destinó final.

El avión, que podrá volar durante el día y la noche, tiene una envergadura de ala de 72 metros, más que un Boeing 747, pero su peso es similar al de un vehículo (2.300 kilogramos). La nave lleva cuatro motores eléctricos que se mueven con la energía solar que producen sus 17.000 células fotovoltaicas que recubren sus alas. Los motores logran acumular la energía solar producida en las horas de luz y la utilizan durante la noche, de modo que la nave puede seguir volando cuando falta el sol.
Pilotos entrenados para el viaje

Además, la cabina, de 3,8 metros cúbicos, es monoplaza, tiene un asiento ergonómico y cuenta con un pequeño servicio para los pilotos, que tendrán que alimentarse de una comida especial y que dormirán sólo veinte minutos, para lo cual llevan meses entrenándose. Desde esa cabina se monitorizarán las constantes vitales del piloto para detectar cualquier anomalía.

'Solar Impulse 2' puede alcanzar una altura máxima de 8.500 metros y una velocidad máxima de 90 kilómetros hora a nivel del mar y 140 kilómetros hora en su máxima altitud.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 08 Feb 2016 18:17

Scientists in Germany today switched on a new kind of nuclear reactor, the latest experiment in the quest to produce clean, sustainable power from controlled nuclear fusion.

Chancellor Angela Merkel flipped the switch on the Wendelstein 7-X, a $435 million, doughnut-shaped apparatus built at the Max Planck Institute for Particle Physics in Greifswald. Hydrogen was injected into the device, superheated by microwaves until it became type of matter known as plasma for a fraction of a second.

Smashing hydrogen nuclei together releases huge amounts of heat—this is how the sun works—and not much radioactive byproduct. But despite decades of research, nobody has yet produced more energy from fusion reaction experiments than the energy put in.

Still, interest in fusion power is growing worldwide. A number of commercial and research efforts have made recent incremental achievements. And new corporate players have come into the mix, including an effort by Lockheed Martin.

Most efforts try to contain hot plasma within strong electric currents, using a doughnut-shaped device called a tokamak. The world’s largest tokamak is under construction in France at an international facility known as ITER that might cost $50 billion when completed.

Commercial players are exploring all kinds of exotic setups. Tri-Alpha, a company based near Irvine, California, is testing a linear-shaped reactor. Helion Energy of Redmond, Washington, is trying to use a combination of compression and magnetic confinement, while General Fusion, based in Vancouver, British Columbia, tries to control plasma using pistons to compress molten lead and lithium. The mixture also acts as a coolant that can be circulated to generate electricity through conventional steam generators and turbines.

These efforts are all many years away from providing meaningful amounts of electricity, as is the reactor that was tested today in Greifswald. Its design is something different again. Though similar in shape to a tokamak, it uses a complex system of magnetic currents to do the confinement. It is known, fittingly, as a stellarator.
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Re: Energias Alternativas al petroleo

Mensajepor Dalamar » 10 Sep 2017 05:08

China, seeking to meet its promise to cap its carbon emissions by 2030, is the latest country to unveil plans to phase out vehicles running on fossil fuels. The U.K. said in July it will ban sales of diesel- and gasoline-fueled cars by 2040, two weeks after France announced a similar plan to reduce air pollution and meet targets to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).


Para 2040 el coche de gasolina, podría ser historia...
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