El deporte y la salud

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El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 03 Abr 2015 07:08

Your brain is a tissue and so like any other tissue, abuse, lack of use, and especially age causes its performance to decline. Sometime in our late twenties the hippocampus, the portion of our brains devoted to learning and memory, loses about a percent per year in total volume. So it's no surprise that as we get older we naturally lose some of our memory and learning capacity.


El ejercicio fisico te hace mas inteligente:

Brain cells can improve intellect only if they join the existing neural network, and many do not, instead rattling aimlessly around in the brain for a while before dying. One way to pull neurons into the network, however, is to learn something. In a 2007 study, new brain cells in mice became looped into the animals' neural networks if the mice learned to navigate a water maze, a task that is cognitively but not physically taxing. But these brain cells were very limited in what they could do.

When the researchers studied brain activity afterward, they found that the newly wired cells fired only when the animals navigated the maze again, not when they practiced other cognitive tasks. The learning encoded in those cells did not transfer to other types of rodent thinking. Exercise, on the other hand, seems to make neurons nimble. When researchers in a separate study had mice run, the animals' brains readily wired many new neurons into the neural network. But those neurons didn't fire later only during running. They also lighted up when the animals practiced cognitive skills, like exploring unfamiliar environments. In the mice, running, unlike learning, had created brain cells that could multitask.

Most studies have focused on aerobic activities like running or swimming. But even walking can make a difference. One study showed that older people who walked for just 40 minutes three days a week took two years off the "age" of their hippocampus—and improved their memory function.


Fuente: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/22/magaz ... -brain.htm

Fuente: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/really-e ... jeff-haden

Nota: Al menos el ejercicio es beneficioso para los que no somos como Llinares!
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 27 Dic 2015 16:30

El deporte en la edad adulta no parece extender la esperanza de vida aunque si tiene benecifios para la salud:

Animal studies have already shown that a strong link exists between genetic background and physical activity level. The purpose of our study was to investigate the associations between genetic background, physical activity level, and lifespan. We studied also both identical and non-identical same sex twin pairs of which one was physically active and his/hers co-twin was inactive. We looked for the association between physical activity level and lifespan by following the mortality of the twins for 23 years.
High physical activity level was associated with longer lifespan when looking at non-identical twins that differ for their genetic background. However, in identical twins, that share the same genetic background, in pairwise analyses comparing physically active members of a twin pair with their inactive co-twin, there was no difference in lifespan. Our results are consistent with previous findings, that animals that have high aerobic capacity are physically more active compared to animals with low aerobic capacity. The findings in human twins were in agreement with this: discordance in physical activity level was clearly more common among non-identical twins than in identical twins showing an effect of genetic background on physical activity level.

Vigorous physical activity in adulthood did not increase lifespan in human twins, even though physical activity is well-known to have various positive effects on health, physical fitness, and physical function. Based on our findings, we propose that genetic factors might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high physical activity level and later reduced mortality in humans. Our finding covers vigorous physical activity started at adulthood, hence physical activity started during childhood may have different effects. Thus, it will be critical to determine whether physical activity has a positive effect on lifespan when commenced early in life.
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 19 Ene 2016 07:01

Al menos 150 minutos semanales de ejercicio moderado o 75 intenso:

Regular exercise is essential for keeping your heart healthy, and the more the better, experts from the American College of Cardiology's Sports and Exercise Cardiology Council say.

The study authors examined recent research and found that even small amounts of exercise, including standing, can reduce the risk of heart disease. Even greater reductions in risk can be achieved with more exercise, the researchers said.

But only half of American adults get the recommended 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise a week, the report authors noted.

The new research also reviewed recent studies that have suggested that excessive aerobic exercise -- such as endurance races -- may harm the heart. While that possibility warrants further investigation, current research shows that even for people with extremely high levels of training, the benefits of exercise outweigh the risks, according to the report, published Jan. 18 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Fuente: http://www.philly.com/philly/health/top ... k_You.html
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 19 Ene 2016 07:50

Cuanto ejercicio tenemos que hacer para obtener beneficios para la salud?

Fuente: http://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/summary.aspx
    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many adverse health outcomes.
    Some physical activity is better than none.
    For most health outcomes, additional benefits occur as the amount of physical activity increases through higher intensity, greater frequency, and/or longer duration.
    Most health benefits occur with at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking. Additional benefits occur with more physical activity.
    Both aerobic (endurance) and muscle-strengthening (resistance) physical activity are beneficial.
    Health benefits occur for children and adolescents, young and middle-aged adults, older adults, and those in every studied racial and ethnic group.
    The health benefits of physical activity occur for people with disabilities.
    The benefits of physical activity far outweigh the possibility of adverse outcomes.

Key Guidelines for Adults
    All adults should avoid inactivity. Some physical activity is better than none, and adults who participate in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits.
    For substantial health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.
    For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount.
    Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits.
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 15 Feb 2016 19:50

Poor physical fitness in middle age may be linked to a smaller brain size 20 years later. "We found a direct correlation in our study between poor fitness and brain volume decades later, which indicates accelerated brain aging." For the study, 1,583 people enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study, with an average age of 40 and without dementia or heart disease, took a treadmill test. They took another one two decades later, along with MRI brain scans. The researchers also analyzed the results when they excluded participants who developed heart disease or started taking beta blockers to control blood pressure or heart problems; this group had 1,094 people.
Exercise capacity was estimated using the length of time participants were able to exercise on the treadmill before their heart rate reached a certain level. For every eight units lower a person performed on the treadmill test, their brain volume two decades later was smaller, equivalent to two years of accelerated brain aging. When the people with heart disease or those taking beta blockers were excluded, every eight units of lower physical performance was associated with reductions of brain volume equal to one year of accelerated brain aging. The study also showed that people whose blood pressure and heart rate went up at a higher rate during exercise also were more likely to have smaller brain volumes two decades later. People with poor physical fitness often have higher blood pressure and heart rate responses to low levels of exercise compared to people with better fitness.
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 27 Feb 2016 20:05

The study, published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, examines data from around 3,000 people aged 50-79 who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

It finds that even among people who exercise, those who spend less time sitting and more time moving around tend to live longer.

First author Ezra Fishman, a doctoral candidate in demography at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, says:

"The folks who were walking around, washing the dishes, sweeping the floor tended to live longer than the people who were sitting at a desk."
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 27 Feb 2016 20:07

Fuente: http://www.lavanguardia.com/vida/201602 ... rebro.html

Investigadores de la Universidad de Jyväskylä, en Finlandia, han descubierto que practicar ejercicio aeróbico, como correr de forma regular, puede servir para aumentar la neurogénesis o producción de neuronas en el hipocampo, región cerebral clave para el aprendizaje, durante la edad adulta.

En un artículo publicado en la revista 'Journal of Physiology: London', los autores describen los efectos beneficiosos para la estructura y la función del cerebro que conlleva este tipo de ejercicio, y reconocen que no queda claro si podrían conseguirse los mismos resultados un entrenamiento de alta intensidad con periodos de descanso o recuperación.

Además, apuntan que la singularidad genética de cada individuo podría condicionar los efectos de dicha actividad física en la neurogénesis, si bien no se ha estudiado suficientemente.
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 11 Jun 2016 10:14

Fuente: http://www.fastcompany.com/3025957/work ... us-happier

If you start exercising, your brain recognizes this as a moment of stress. As your heart pressure increases, the brain thinks you are either fighting the enemy or fleeing from it. To protect yourself and your brain from stress, you release a protein called BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor). This BDNF has a protective and also reparative element to your memory neurons and acts as a reset switch. That’s why we often feel so at ease and things are clear after exercising and eventually happy.

At the same time, endorphins, another chemical to fight stress, is released in your brain. Your endorphins main purpose is this writes researcher McGovern:

These endorphins tend to minimize the discomfort of exercise, block the feeling of pain and are even associated with a feeling of euphoria.


So, BDNF and endorphins are the reasons exercise makes us feel so good. The somewhat scary part is that they have a very similar and addictive behavior like morphine, heroine or nicotine. The only difference? Well, it’s actually good for us.

"Those who had exercised during the preceding month but not on the day of testing generally did better on the memory test than those who had been sedentary, but did not perform nearly as well as those who had worked out that morning."
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 19 Jun 2016 16:29

15 Minutes of Daily Exercise Associated with 22% Lower Mortality for Older People

Fuente: https://www.fightaging.org/archives/201 ... er-people/

The study linked here is one of many examples of the correlation between regular moderate exercise and mortality rate found in human epidemiological data. In animal studies it can be proven that exercise causes reduced mortality, but that is very hard to demonstrate directly in human populations - researchers can't just set up the same experimental groups and wait. So statistical methods are used, and the combination of those and the animal studies gives a good level of confidence to suggest that yes, it is a matter of exercise providing benefits rather than a matter of people more likely to live longer regardless also being more likely to exercise.

Fifteen minutes of daily exercise is associated with a 22% lower risk of death and may be a reasonable target for older adults. The authors studied two cohorts. A French cohort of 1011 subjects aged 65 in 2001 was followed over a period of 12 years. An international cohort of 122,417 subjects aged 60 was included from a systematic review and meta-analysis, with a mean follow up of 10 years. Physical activity was measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) minutes per week, which refers to the amount of energy (calories) expended per minute of physical activity. One MET minute per week is equal to the amount of energy expended just sitting. The number of MET minutes an individual clocks up every week depends on the intensity of physical activity. For example, moderate intensity activity ranges between 3 and 5.9 MET minutes while vigorous intensity activity is classified as 6 or more. The recommended levels of exercise equate to between 500 and 1000 MET minutes every week. The authors looked at the associated risk of death for four categories of weekly physical activity in MET minutes, defined as inactive (reference for comparison), low (1-499), medium (500-999) or high (≥1000).

During the follow up there were 88 (9%) and 18,122 (15%) deaths in the French and international cohorts, respectively. The risk of death reduced in a dose response relationship as the level of exercise increased. Compared to those who were inactive, older adults with low, medium and high activity levels had a 22%, 28% and 35% lower risk of death, respectively. "These two studies show that the more physical activity older adults do, the greater the health benefit. The biggest jump in benefit was achieved at the low level of exercise, with the medium and high levels bringing smaller increments of benefit. We think that older adults should progressively increase physical activity in their daily lives rather than dramatically changing their habits to meet recommendations. Fifteen minutes a day could be a reasonable target for older adults. Small increases in physical activity may enable some older adults to incorporate more moderate activity and get closer to the recommended 150 minutes per week."
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Re: El deporte y la salud

Mensajepor Dalamar » 20 Jun 2016 06:13

Tecnicas de memorizacion:

Aerobic exercise four hours after a memorization task, but not exercise right afterwards, was linked to improved recall in a series of Dutch experiments.

Newly-learned information turns into long-term knowledge through a process of stabilization and integration of memories, the study team writes in Current Biology. This requires certain brain chemicals that are also released during physical exercise, including dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and a growth factor called BDNF, they explain.

“The brain processes new memories for a while after learning. Physical exercise is able to improve these post-learning processes,” senior author Guillen Fernandez, director of the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, told Reuters Health by email.

To explore when exercise would most improve learning, researchers recruited 72 participants and tasked them with learning to match a series of 90 locations with pictures over a 40-minute period.

The participants were split into three groups: one group exercised immediately after learning, one group exercised four hours later and one group did not exercise at all.

The exercise groups did interval training for 35 minutes on a stationary bike, including spurts at maximum intensity.

Two days later, the participants returned to the lab to test how much of what they’d memorized they could recall. During the recall test, the each subject was in a MRI scanner so researchers could monitor activity in different areas of the brain.

The group that had exercised four hours after learning remembered significantly more information on the follow-up test, while the immediate-exercise group did no better than the group that did not exercise.
Activity in the hippocampus, a part of the brain associated with forming memories, was very similar among people in the delayed-exercise group during the recall task, but less consistent in the other participants, the researchers note.
They speculate that the consistency of activation in the hippocampus in the delayed-exercise group could indicate greater “efficiency or coherence” in the way the brain pulls up the memory and “might relate to differences in memory strength.”

While strong memories will be remembered no matter what, Fernandez said, weaker memories that would normally be forgotten within a day may last longer if the brain releases more dopamine and norepinephrine.
People looking to improve their learning should perform fairly intense exercise to make sure that enough of the critical brain chemicals are released, he said, but cautioned against taking this too far. “Very intensive exercise might also have negative effects.”
The authors note that more research is needed to determine if exercise will help memories last beyond the two-day period they studied.

They add that the type of memory may be important, and that procedural or “body” memory of activities like tying a shoe may be better helped by immediate exercise than other kinds of memories.
Having a regular exercise routine may be helpful as well said Marc Roig, an assistant professor at McGill University in Montreal who studies the effect of cardiovascular exercise on memory.
Several weeks of cardio exercise, such as jogging, can make the hippocampus larger and improve people’s memory, he told Reuters Health.

The type of exercise may not be important, though, added Roig, who was not involved in the new study. “Most studies have looked into aerobic exercise but recent data shows that resistance training and high intensity interval training may also be beneficial.”

“When thinking about how to maximize your training regimen to improve/maintain memory do not ask yourself only what type of exercise, intensity or frequency is the best. Ask yourself when to train to achieve the best results,” Roig said.
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