Inmortalidad

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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 23 May 2014 18:49

How Many Telomere Units You Have As You Age

This is the approximate loss of telomeres over the course of a lifetime:

Conception: 15,000 units
At birth: 10,000 units (a loss of 5,000 units)
At death: 5,000 units (a loss of another 5,000 units over the course of a lifetime)

Researchers at Harvard-affiliated medical centers genetically manipulated mice to age faster, and then used gene therapy to lengthen telomeres -- compounds found at the ends of strands of DNA -- which reversed age-related problems such as decreased brain function and infertility.

"We at best expected it to be a slowing of the process or perhaps an arresting of the process. We did not anticipate that it would be so dramatic a reversal in all of the problems that the animal was experiencing," said Dr. Ronald DiPinho, professor of medicine and genetics at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, and co-author of the paper published Sunday in the journal Nature. "We were so struck by the findings that we rushed to get the study published."

Researchers boosted telomerase in the mice cells -- which hold 20 pairs of chromosomes -- to prevent telomeres from getting shorter. They found restoring the enzyme not only stopped aging but revived failing organs and even restored dark fur to mice who had turned grey. DePinho said the mice that were equivalent to ages 80 to 90 in human years returned to the equivalent of middle age.

"This [research] indicates there's a point of return for these tissues," said DePinho. "The fact that you can bring a tissue to the brink and then bring it back this dramatically is remarkable."

Previous studies suggest that even in humans, shorter telomeres may be associated with age-related diseases such as heart disease and Alzheimer's disease.

In fact, the brains of the age-modified mice were 75 percent of the size of a normal brain, much as happens in a patient with Alzheimer's disease. But when researchers reactivated the telomerase, the brains returned to a normal size, according to the study.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 30 May 2014 10:27

Dec 21, 2013

LONDON: Researchers have found a cause of ageing in animals that can be reversed, possibly paving the way for new treatments for age-related diseases including cancer, muscle wasting and inflammatory diseases. The researchers hope to start human trials late next year.

The study, which is published in the journal Cell, relates to mitochondria, which are our cells' battery packs and give energy to carry out key biological functions.

Researchers from Harvard Medical School and the University of NSW have discovered a way of restoring the efficiency of cells, completely reversing the aging process in muscles. Researchers injected a chemical called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD, which reduces in the body as we age.

The work, led by UNSW Medicine's David Sinclair, found a series of molecular events enable communication inside cells between the mitochondria and the nucleus. As communication breaks down, ageing accelerates.

"The ageing process we discovered is like a married couple - when they are young, they communicate well, but over time, living in close quarters for many years, communication breaks down," says UNSW professor Sinclair, who is based at Harvard Medical School.

"And just like a couple, restoring communication solved the problem," says the geneticist.

The background to the research is that as we age, levels of the chemical NAD, which starts this communication cascade, decline.

Until now, the only way to slow the NAD drop was to restrict calories and exercise intensively.

In this work, the researchers used a compound that cells transform into NAD to repair the broken network and rapidly restore communication and mitochondrial function. It mimics the effects of diet and exercise.

While Professor Sinclair's group in Boston was working on muscles in tissue culture, colleagues at UNSW in Sydney were working on animal models to prove the work could have the same results.

"It was shocking how quickly it happened," says co-author Dr Nigel Turner, from UNSW's Department of Pharmacology.

"If the compound is administered early enough in the ageing process, in just a week, the muscles of the older mice were indistinguishable from the younger animals". The mice, which were two-years-old, also performed well on insulin resistance and inflammation - both of which are correlated with ageing. They were compared with six-month-old animals.

"It was a very pronounced effect," says Dr Turner.








Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Chronic... [Altern Ther Health Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

2013 Aug 15

Abstract

Loss of function in mitochondria, the key organelle responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease.

At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes:

(1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical transmembrane potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane,
(2) alterations in the function of the electron transport chain, or
(3) a reduction in the transport of critical metabolites into mitochondria.

In turn, these changes result in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and a reduction in production of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Several components of this system require routine replacement, and this need can be facilitated with natural supplements.

Clinical trials have shown the utility of using oral replacement supplements, such as L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid (α-lipoic acid [1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid]), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 [ubiquinone]), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), membrane phospholipids, and other supplements. Combinations of these supplements can reduce significantly the fatigue and other symptoms associated with chronic disease and can naturally restore mitochondrial function, even in long-term patients with intractable fatigue.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 08 Jul 2014 05:38

Articulo interesante: http://www.businessinsider.com/louis-de ... ity-2014-7

"By the end of this century," he continued, "most of the human race will have become cyborgs [part human, part tech or machine]. The allure will be immortality. Machines will make breakthroughs in medical technology, most of the human race will have more leisure time, and we'll think we've never had it better. The concern I'm raising is that the machines will view us as an unpredictable and dangerous species."


Yo creo que lleva razon, segun vengan avances tecnologicos lo que vamos a querer hacer es integrarlos en nuestros propios cuerpos, y que nos den mayor esperanza de vida, en algun momento podremos usar procesadores conectados a nuestros cerebros, y memorias extra, reemplazar organos.

Yo creo que la historia de Inteligencia artificial y maquinas que se revelan contra el hombre no sera tal, mas bien sera que el hombre cada vez sera mas hibrido con las maquinas y en algun momento no se sabra si es maquina u hombre, ya que tengo la certeza de que las maquinas con suficiente capacidad de proceso y de memoria seran muy similares a los humanos, y discrepo en que los humanos son impredecibles, las maquinas lo seran igualmente, ya que lo que nos diferencia a unos de otros son las experiencias adquiridas durante nuestra vida, algo que tambien podria ser diferente en las maquinas, o al reves, al comunicarse rapidamente unas con otras tendran la misma informacion para tomar decicisones, pero los humanos al estar integrados con las maquinas tambien tendran la misma informacion y las mismas experiencias.

Al final todo nos lleva al: off-topic/libre-albedrio-t1080.html

Y dado que las neuronas no son mas que un tipo de conector y que los sentimientos no son nada mas que una ilusion, no creo que a igualdad de condiciones en el futuro los humanos seamos muy diferentes a las maquinas, ahora mismo solo somos maquinas con mucha mas capacidad, y esa diferencia se cierra a gran velocidad.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 05 Sep 2014 05:36

Calico encuentra socios!

Hot on the heels of its $805 million development deal with Infinity, AbbVie Pharmaceuticals ($ABBV) has followed up today with a plan to partner with Google's ($GOOG) closely watched biotech upstart Calico on a new research operation that will cost up to $1.5 billion to get started.

Google-backed Calico, helmed by the legendary Art Levinson, and AbbVie are each investing an initial $250 million in a new research facility in the Bay Area that will focus on the discovery and development of new drugs focused on diseases related to aging, with a spotlight on neurodegeneration and cancer. And they say they're each prepared to sink another $500 million into the project, with Calico taking the lead on early-stage work through Phase IIa during the first 10 years. AbbVie will have an option to take projects further. And they'll split development costs.

The deal marks a major leap for AbbVie, as it partners with one of the most intriguing--and least understood--biotech startups in the country. When Google launched the company under Levinson, the giant corporation did little to explain what it wanted to accomplish, aside from tackling diseases associated with aging. And its website does little to clear up the mystery.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 09 Sep 2014 17:31

Biologists Delay the Aging Process by “Remote Control”

UCLA scientists have revealed a new technique which extended the lives of fruit flies by up to 30% and positively impacted overall health in a recent study published in Cell Reports. By activating a gene called AMPK in the intestines of the flies, which serves as an “energy sensor” in cells, the researchers were able to boost the rate at which those cells use energy. Humans also have the AMPK gene; if activated, it could benefit a variety of anti-aging and regenerative medicine related studies already underway
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 12 Sep 2014 04:53

NAD
As we noted above, aging is a sort of cellular wear and tear. According to Dr. David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School, there’s a specific biological signal that accompanies aging and tells cells it’s time to check out. It’s triggered when the cell perceives a lack of oxygen. That makes the mitochondria less efficient at converting fuel (such as glucose) into the ATP needed for cells to function properly.

But Sinclair and his colleagues recently found a way to counteract that signal. Using a natural chemical compound called NAD, they were able to revive older cells in mice and make them appear energetic and young again. After receiving NAD for just one week, two-year-old mice tissue came to resemble that of six-month-old mice. “When we give the molecule, the cells think oxygen levels are normal and everything revs back up again,” Sinclair explained. “If a body is slowly falling apart and losing the ability to regulate itself effectively, we can get it back on track to what it was in its 20s and 30s.”

Let’s hope.

FOXO
Molecular biologist Cynthia Kenyon thinks she may have found another of the keys to a long life through her study of tiny worms called C. elegans. By tweaking just one gene in these worms (to simply make it more active), she was able to take two-week-old C. elegans (which is a creaky old age for these things) and make them appear about half that age. And her modified worms lived twice as long as the normal worms. “So they’re like 90-year-old people who look 45,” said Kenyon. The gene Kenyon changed: FOXO. FOXO is a sort of master gene that helps C. elegans protect and repair its tissues (and live longer) by controlling a number of other genes.

According to Kenyon:

You can think of it as a superintendent of a building. So if you have a building, a nice big building, obviously it has to be maintained. What FOXO does, or the building superintendent does, is to keep the building in good working order. It makes sure that the walls are painted, by hiring painters; it makes sure that the floors are swept. The building superintendent would hire workers to do these different things. What FOXO does, in the cell, is it switches on other genes … I’d say, altogether, there are probably about a hundred worker genes that have very important roles. And, together, what you get is a cell or tissue or an animal that stays in really good working condition for a lot longer.

What’s particularly exciting about Kenyon’s work is that the FOXO gene is also found in humans, and that a more protective version of FOXO (as in Kenyon’s modified worms) is associated with longer, healthier lives. Molecular biologist Timothy Donlon found in his studies that if you have this more protective version of FOXO, you have a twofold greater chance of living to 100. And if you have two copies of it, you have a threefold greater chance of living to 100, while remaining healthy. So the gene is indeed associated with adding life to your years and years to your life.

If scientists could create a drug to tweak FOXO in humans like Kenyon did in her worms, it seems like we’d have an effective anti-aging medicine on our hands.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 16 Sep 2014 21:20

The $1 Million Race for the Cure to End Aging
Eleven scientific teams have formally entered the Palo Alto Longevity Prize competition, seeking to “end aging” and claim the $1 million prize. Teams from Stanford and George Washington universities, as well as the University of North Carolina, among other schools and hospitals, will approach the problem of ending aging from a variety of research angles. Among the listed areas of focus were gene modification, hypothalamic regulation, stem cells, and inflammatory tissues. Combined with support from angel investors and leading Silicon Valley venture capital firms, the goal of the competition is to incentivize the research that will lengthen and improve lives.
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 16 Sep 2014 21:24

“With sufficient funding we have a 50/50 chance to getting this all working within the next 25 years, but it could also happen in the next 100,” he says.

If you ask Ray Kurzweil, life extension expert, futurist and part-time adviser to Google’s somewhat stealth Calico project, we’re actually tip-toeing upon the cusp of living forever. “We’ll get to a point about 15 years from now where we’re adding more than a year every year to your life expectancy,” he told the New York Times in early 2013. He also wrote in the book he co-authored with Terry Grossman, M.D., that “Immortality is within our grasp.” That’s a bit optimistic to de Grey (the two are good friends), but he’s not surprised this prize is coming out of Silicon Valley. “Things are changing here first. We have a high density of visionaries who like to think high.”

And he believes much of what Kurzweil says is true with the right funding. “Give me large amounts of money to get the research to happen faster,” says de Grey. He then points out that Google’s Calico funds are virtually unlimited. “Kurzweil asked Larry [Page] and Sergey [Brin] how much he had to work with and they said to let him know when he runs out of money and they’ll send more,” de Grey tells me.

Whether it’s 15, 25 or even 100 years off, we need to spur a revolution in aging research, according to Joon Yun, one of the sponsors of the prize. “The aim of the prize is to catalyze that revolution,” says Yun. His (very well-connected) nanny actually came up with the initial idea. She just happens to be an acquaintance of Wendy Schmidt, wife of Google’s Eric Schmidt. But it was the passing of Yun’s 68-year-old father-in-law and some conversations with his friends that got him thinking about how to take on aging as a whole.

The Palo Alto Prize is also working with a number of angel investors, venture capital firms, corporate venture arms, institutions and private foundations within Silicon Valley to create health-related incentive prize competitions in the future. This first $1 million prize comes from Yun’s own pockets.

The initial prize will be divided into two $500,000 awards. Half a million dollars will go to the first team to demonstrate that it can restore heart rate variability (HRV) to that of a young adult. The other half of the $1 million will be awarded to the first team that can extend lifespan by 50 percent. So far 11 teams from all over the world have signed up for the challenge.

All 11 teams are listed below for those interested in following along:

Doris Taylor, Ph.D.
Texas Heart Institute, Houston, TX
http://paloaltoprize.com/team/team-taylor-lab/
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Dalamar » 21 Sep 2014 07:10

Los actuales middle-age llegaremos a los 100? Parece dificil pero posible... cada año la esperanza de vida se incrementa en 3 meses... Pero la clave esta en aplicar lo que ya se conoce cosa que la mayoria de la gente no hace!
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Re: Inmortalidad

Mensajepor Vigilantexx » 22 Sep 2014 12:01

Las recomendaciones y dietas de los matusalenes (me gusta la del soldado inglés)

http://www.elconfidencial.com/alma-cora ... es_145084/

Yo creo que mucha gente no quiere llegar a tantos años y se "cansaran" si han vivido intensamente o no tienen medios económicos


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