Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

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Dalamar
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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor Dalamar » 25 Ago 2014 17:50

Ese no lo he visto, tiene buena pinta...
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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor Dalamar » 20 Ene 2015 21:37

Fumar:

Smoking Damages the Epigenome for a LONG time

While we all know that smoking is bad for you, and even your baby, it seems that the effects last longer than you may think. Researchers from Imperial College London investigate and show that while there are epigenomic benefits to giving up smoking, there are also some changes that persist for what seems to be a lifetime.

Previously, several other groups have shown that smoking creates two distinct DNA methylation signatures and that one of the classes can be detected up to a whopping 60 years after quitting.
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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor Dalamar » 06 Mar 2015 08:53

Now, for the first time, researchers have assembled a comprehensive map of the human epigenome. The mapping, by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and other institutions, includes detailed descriptions of the epigenetic markers in 111 types of cells and tissues. Partial epigenome mapping is available for many other cell types, and new information will be added as it becomes available.

The research is published Feb. 18 in the journal Nature. More than 20 additional papers, including three by scientists at the School of Medicine, appear simultaneously in other Nature journals to show how epigenetic maps can be used to study human biology.

"We've only scratched the surface of the human epigenome, but this massive resource marks the beginning of an era," said a principal investigator of the epigenome mapping project, Ting Wang, PhD, assistant professor of genetics. "We can now begin to describe humans in molecular detail.

"We also can look closely at the epigenetic differences between cell types. We don't yet understand what those differences mean or what epigenetic changes drive cell specialization or the initiation of disease. But that's where we're headed. This resource opens up many new doors in biology and the biomedical sciences.
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firehand
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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor firehand » 05 Jun 2015 19:18

La influencia de los genes en las enfermedades es solo del 10%


http://www.abc.es/salud/noticias/201506 ... 51703.html

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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor Dalamar » 06 Jun 2015 06:28

Claro que es algo muy teorico... El componente genetico de la diabetes es importante, pero si llevas una dieta muy sana es casi imposible que la desarrolles, si llevas una mala dieta y tienes los genes puedes desarrollar diabetes a temprana edad, y si no tienes "los genes" (ya que son mucho y es dificil no tener ninguno, es mas bien un %) puedes comer fatal toda tu vida y estar obesisimo y no tener diabetes... Por otro lado hay otras enfermedades geneticas que no se sabe que las desencadena pero tienes un 80% de tenerlas...

Somos más que nuestros genes, que son solo parte de nuestra historia. No podemos culparlos del todo de la susceptibilidad a enfermar. La influencia determinista del genoma en la aparición de enfermedades sólo se cumple en el 10% de los casos. En el 90% restante se puede modular con distintas estrategias.

Hay enfermedades que aparecen porque tenemos una serie de hábitos tóxicos que las desencadenan. Y al revés, hay otras que han desaparecido, se han reducido o pueden evitarse con la aplicación de pautas de prevención. Y los genes que las producen siguen siendo los mismos. Pero el estilo de vida cambia sus marcas epigenéticas.

Estamos trabajando en dos cosas. Por un lado, comprender los mecanismos epigenéticos de la metástasis, un proceso muy plástico por el que células normales se vuelven migratorias e invasivas. Y por otro, estamos buscando marcadores epignéticos de respuesta a fármacos, para contribuir a la medicina personalizada del cáncer. Ya hay marcadores epigenéticos que se usan en la clínica, como el del glioma, un tumor cerebral, que permite predecir qué fármaco irá mejor para el tratamiento. Otro aprobado este año, que hemos desarrollado en colaboración con el grupo Ferré, permite averiguar el origen de tumores inciertos. En algunos casos solo se ve la metástasis y no de dónde viene, el origen. Si hacemos una «foto epigenética» se puede saber dónde se ha originado, si es una metástasis de colon, mama...
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Re: Freud contra Darwin! Epigenetica!

Mensajepor Dalamar » 27 Feb 2016 20:02

Your epigenetic profile changes as the years go by, and although everyone and every cell type is different, there are some clear patterns that emerge with time. These patterns can be measured and compared - allowing you to estimate someone's biological age instead of simply counting how long they've been alive. Many people appear to avoid the ravages of time and likely display a younger epigenetic signature to show for it, while those less fortunate may display an older one.

A team at Northwestern University developed a novel algorithm to calculate a person's epigenetic age by measuring methylation levels; including 71 possible markers. These methylation markers are affected by lifestyle differences like diet.
Instead of taking one sample, the scientists collected blood samples from 1999 to 2013. They then analysed the data and formed an Δage value for each individual. Δage accounts for epigenetic and chronological age discrepancies, and those with a negative mismatch were predicted to be at greater risk of cancer.

The study did not account for why some people aged faster than others, but lifestyle may play a significant role

“About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence and mortality"

The study discovered that every year of epigenetic age above actual age increased cancer likelihood by 6% in the following 3 years and 17% in 5. The data also suggested that even an increase of 6 months hinted at cancer vulnerability, and those unfortunate to have above a 2.2 year increase were at a particularly high risk of dying from cancer.

“Our sensitivity analyses found that the association between Δage and cancer is independent of both telomere length and other comorbidities, suggesting Δage as a specific cancer biomarker as well as the possibility that Δage reflects molecular-level aging or carcinogenic processes that are not captured by telomere measurements”
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